*Teaching multiplication in the classroom is no easy task. Whether you’re a 2nd grade or 3rd grade teacher. These strategies, activities, and tips can help simplify things for your students and make your multiplication lessons shine.*

## Teaching Multiplication to 2nd and 3rd Graders

For second and third-grade teachers, teaching multiplication isn’t just about introducing a new concept; it’s about laying the groundwork for a deeper understanding of mathematics. However, we often encounter challenges in making this fundamental concept engaging and accessible to young learners.

We may face challenges in making multiplication engaging for students. One common hurdle is the abstract nature of multiplication, which can be hard for young minds to grasp. Students often find it challenging to memorize the facts of multiplication tables, and maintaining their focus through repetitive practice sessions is equally difficult.

Then, on top of all that, we must accommodate various learning styles and abilities in the classroom. However, there are plenty of creative activities and strategies to simplify teaching multiplication, making it understandable and enjoyable for our students.

## Table of Contents

- Teaching Multiplication to 2nd and 3rd Graders
- Multiplication Lessons & Hands-On Activities
- Helpful Multiplication Strategies and Tips
- Multiplication Tricks
- Math Books and Online Resources
- Resources to Help You Teach Multiplication
- More Math Ideas & Activities

## Multiplication Lessons & Hands-On Activities

Through interactive activities, students will explore concepts like equal groups, repeated addition, arrays, and the properties of multiplication. From using manipulatives to playing games, these activities transform abstract ideas into tangible experiences, fostering a deeper understanding of mathematical principles for 2nd and 3rd grade children.

### Equal Groups

Understanding equal groups is the cornerstone of multiplication. When teaching multiplication and equal groups, start with a hands-on lesson where students physically group objects into equal sets. For instance, you could use counters, beads, or even classroom objects like pencils or erasers.

Once students grasp the idea of equal groups, reinforce it with activities such as matching the equation to the description card or equal group task cards using small objects.

### Repeated Addition

Repeated addition serves as a bridge to understanding multiplication. Begin by demonstrating how multiplication is essentially repeated addition. For example, show students that 2 x 3 is the same as 2 + 2 + 2.

To reinforce this concept, engage students in interactive activities like Pull and Jump, where students draw a multiplication card and then jump on a number line mat to illustrate how you skip count in multiplication.

Students can also play repeated addition scoot. Place multiplication problems around the room for students to look at, and then they record and write the repeated addition sentence that matches.

### Arrays

Arrays provide a visual representation of multiplication. Teach students how to organize objects into rows and columns, emphasizing that the number of rows multiplied by the number of columns gives the total. Use manipulatives like square tiles or colored blocks to create arrays, allowing students to physically manipulate and understand the concept.

Follow up with activities such as array playdough, where students use playdough to create the arrays representing the multiplication equation.

They can also practice building an array with unifix cubes or other small objects on a mat. Then, they can write the equation that matches their picture.

### Properties of Multiplication

Introduce students to the properties of multiplication, including commutative, associative, and distributive properties. Use relatable examples and interactive discussions to illustrate these concepts.

**Commutative Property**– In multiplication, the order of factors can be changed without affecting the product. For example, 3 x 4 is the same as 4 x 3, equaling 12.**Associative Property**– Multiplication allows the grouping of factors differently without changing the result. For instance, (2 x 3) x 4 equals 2 x (3 x 4), resulting in 24 in both cases.**Distributive Property**– This property states that multiplying a number by the sum of two other numbers is the same as multiplying the number by each of the two numbers separately and then adding the products. For example, 3 x (2 + 4) is equal to (3 x 2) + (3 x 4), which equals 18.

Reinforce learning through activities, like multiplication puzzles where students find the matching equation with the correct property or find your partner activities where students need to find their matching multiplication equation based on the different properties. For example, 3 x 2 needs to find 2 x 3 using the associative property, or 1 x 1 needs to find the answer 1 using the identity property.

## Helpful Multiplication Strategies and Tips

Ensure students know the topic you are covering in the lesson. Include math “I can” posters to give students a heads-up on what they will learn in math class today.

Post math “I can” signs near vocabulary words students will be expected to know by the end of the unit or lesson.

## Multiplication Tricks

Multiplying by different numbers can be challenging for young learners. When teaching multiplication, it’s important to provide students with strategies. Here are some mnemonic devices or visual aids that may help.

**Here are strategies for remembering multiplication facts for 0 & 1, 2 & 3, 4 & 5, 6 & 7, and 8 & 9:**

### Multiplying by **Zero and One**

Teach students that any number multiplied by 0 is always 0. Use visual aids like arrays or number lines to demonstrate this concept. For multiplication by 1, emphasize the identity property: any number multiplied by 1 remains the same number.

### Multiplying by **Twos and Threes**

Encourage students to see patterns. For twos, demonstrate how it’s like counting by 2s: 2, 4, 6, 8, and so on. Use skip-counting songs or rhymes to reinforce the pattern. Similarly, for threes, emphasize the pattern of skip counting: 3, 6, 9, 12, etc.

### Multiplying by **Fours and Fives**

Introduce mnemonic devices or catchy rhymes to help students remember these facts. For instance, for the fours, they could remember, “4 x 4 is 16, shut the door!” For fives, emphasize the easy pattern of counting by 5s: 5, 10, 15, 20, and so forth.

### Multiplying by **Sixes and Sevens**

Incorporate visual aids like multiplication charts or number lines to help students visualize the patterns. For sixes, students can learn that 6 is 2 times 3, and thus, they can relate it to the three multiplication facts. Similarly, for sevens, encourage students to notice the patterns in skip counting and use songs or chants to reinforce memory.

### Multiplying by **Eights and Nines**

Teach students tricks for eights, such as doubling the number three times (e.g., 8 x 4 = double 4 = 32). For nines, show them the finger trick where they fold down the finger representing the number they’re multiplying by 9 to find the product (e.g., for 9 x 7, fold down the 7th finger to get 6 on the left and 3 on the right for 63).

These strategies can make learning multiplication facts more engaging and memorable for students, helping them build a strong foundation in mathematics.

Utilize hands-on materials like multiplication charts or number lines to facilitate learning. Using dice to help students create different multiplication equations is another way to allow students to get some hands-on experience.

## Math Books and Online Resources

Incorporate Math picture books that explore multiplication concepts in fun and engaging ways, sparking students’ curiosity and imagination.

Additionally, use educational apps and online resources that offer interactive games and tutorials to reinforce learning outside the classroom.

- Reflex– A great website for addition/subtraction and multiplication/division fluency practice.
- Generation Genius– This is a great video to help teach the concept of multiplication.
- Adventure Academy– A great place for many subject areas.

Teaching multiplication in 2nd and 3rd grade is not just about imparting mathematical knowledge or memorization; it’s about nurturing a love for learning and problem-solving. By incorporating creative activities and strategies into our lessons, we can demystify multiplication and empower our students to embrace mathematics.

## Resources to Help You Teach Multiplication

### Free Multiplication Vocabulary Cards

Get students learning and understanding multiplication vocabulary in your classroom with these **FREE multiplication vocabulary cards**! They can be printed with or without visuals, whichever fits your style best.

**Click the image below to grab a copy.**

### Mindful Multiplication Units

Try the 2nd grade Multiplication and Division or the 3rd Grade Multiplication Mindful Math Units by Proud to be Primary. Students will love all of the interactive practice, and you’ll love all the done-for-you lesson plans, engaging centers and games, and the data you receive from the journal prompts and assessments.

2nd grade Multiplication and Division

**If you like this resource, you’ll love the 2nd grade and 3rd grade Complete Mindful Math Curriculum Bundles.**

Not teaching multiplication just yet? The Mindful Math Curriculum covers a range of topics!

- Number Sense
- 2-Digit Subtraction
- 2-Digit Addition
- 3-Digit Addition
- 3-Digit Subtraction
- Measurement and Time
- Geometry and Fractions
- Data and Probability
- Money

- Numbers to 1000
- 3-Digit Addition and Subtraction
- Division
- Fractions
- Time and Measurement
- Geometry
- Data & Probability
- Money
- Algebra

## More Math Ideas & Activities

Addition and Subtraction Fact Fluency

**PIN for Later**

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